Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence): Causes, Signs, Methods of Diagnosis and Treatment — June 21, 2017

Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence): Causes, Signs, Methods of Diagnosis and Treatment

Impotence means absence of erection (tension) of penis, which makes it impossible to perform sexual intercourse. Quite often this pathological condition is accompanied by decrease or lack of attraction and lack of orgasm. Sooner or later, most men face erectile dysfunction (ED). This problem has the most negative impact on status of men and family relationships.


There distinguished the following types of erectile dysfunction:

  • primary;
  • secondary.

At primary type patient had no normal erection of genital organ before.

At secondary erectile dysfunction, erection appeared before, but for some reason it became insufficient.

Types of Erectile Dysfunction

The main sign of erectile dysfunction (impotence) is absence of normal penile tension, which makes it impossible to have a full sexual intercourse.

For a long time violation of erection and impotence were considered the same. However, at present time, decrease in strength and duration of penile tension during coitus is not always called «impotence». The term «erectile dysfunction» is more common, and impotence implies only to complete absence of erection.

erectile dysfunction

Men with reduced quality and duration of erection are much more common than patients suffering from complete lack of erection.

Causes of Erectile Dysfunction

There is an opinion that erectile dysfunction develops over years and is a consequence of natural age-related changes. This does not always correspond to reality. In absence of serious pathologies, leading to weakening of erection, patient is fully able to lead full sexual life at 60 and 70.

Canadian Family Pharmacy experts believed that impotence appears due to natural decrease in level of male sex hormones or psychological problems. Currently, doctors tend to believe that the main reason for most patients are organic changes in mechanism of erection.

Cause of erectile dysfunction of varying severity can also be:

  • regular psycho-emotional stress;
  • depressed state of mind (depression);
  • vascular disorders;
  • reception of some pharmacological preparations.

Dysfunctions of blood vessels are often conditionally divided into:

  • arterial (due to diabetes, hypertension or abuse of nicotine);
  • venous (caused by violation of venous outflow from penis).

Important: drugs that can cause impotence in men include luteinizing hormone preparations, antidepressants, antihistamines, ß-adrenoblockers, etc.

Other reasons that can cause erectile dysfunction include:

  • endarteritis;
  • hypogonadism (small secretion of testosterone);
  • adrenal gland dysfunction;
  • neoplasm of pituitary gland;
  • renal insufficiency;
  • epilepsy;
  • multiple sclerosis;
  • Parkinson’s disease;
  • consequences of operations and injuries of pelvic area.

Among general somatic diseases leading causes of violations of potency are considered atherosclerosis (progressing), diabetes and hypertension.

An important role in development and progression of the disease is played by addiction to nicotine and abuse of strong alcohol. Under the influence of the above pathologies and individual factors, vascular walls lose their elasticity, which prevents normal blood filling of arteries and veins.

Normally, with participation of nerve impulses coming from central nervous system, walls of vessels of spongy and cavernous penile bodies are rapidly relaxing, which ensures their filling with blood. Increased in volume arteries squeeze vessels of smaller diameter, preventing outflow of blood from them.

Reduced potency due to some or other organic causes is characterized by:

  • gradual development of erectile problems;
  • absence of nocturnal erections;
  • normal sexual desire and ejaculation;
  • systematic (but not permanent) erectile dysfunction.

Pay attention: often in clinical practice you have to deal with the so-called «psychological impotence». At this disorder, a man has no organic lesions and erectile dysfunction is associated with mental disorders. As a rule, such patients are prescribed treatment by psychologist or neurologist.

The leading signs, allowing to assume psychogenic nature of decrease in potency, are:

  • sudden appearance of symptoms;
  • certain problems in relationship;
  • presence of periodic nocturnal spontaneous erections;
  • episodic nature of problems;
  • elimination of dysfunction as external problem is eliminated.


The first advice that a man with erectile dysfunction hears: «Pay more attention to your health».

And these are not just words, because you need to eliminate cause of violation. Approximately in 50% of cases, normal function of the organ can be restored!

During diagnosis, andrologist will establish presence of the following pathologies:

  • hypertension;
  • inflammatory diseases or prostate tumors;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • atherosclerotic changes of blood vessels;
  • pathologies of the bladder;
  • hormonal dysfunction.

As the main research methods patient may need ultrasound, bacteriological smear and blood test (including hormones). A very informative additional method is ultrasound-dopplerography, which allows to objectively assess qualitative and quantitative parameters of blood flow in penis.

Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

There is no universal remedy for impotence, since there can be a huge number of causes of erectile dysfunction, as mentioned above. Read about various methods of potency restoration here —

In some cases, a man can be helped by a good rest and change of environment; this technique is effective in psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

Modern medicine offers a variety of means to eliminate or minimize erectile dysfunction. Doctors offer both pharmacological cures for impotence and surgical methods.


How to Treat ED with Medications?

Since ancient times mankind has known the so-called «aphrodisiacs» — natural compounds that increase libido and have beneficial effect on erectile function. At present, Viagra and a number of similar preparations have replaced them. They are not universal agents and are characterized by a number of side effects.

Viagra can cause headache and flushing of face (as a result of rush of blood). One of the most «harmless» problems is change in color perception. If patient suffers from serious cardiovascular diseases, development of their exacerbations, up to severe heart attack, is not excluded. In no case should you take Viagra without first consulting your doctor and learn all information about the drug —

More radical methods of treating erectile dysfunction are injections of drugs into cavernous bodies, as well as such a radical way as penile prosthetics, i. e. installation of implant into its body.

Allergy during Pregnancy — June 19, 2017

Allergy during Pregnancy

Many women with allergic diseases are afraid to have a baby. After all, they constantly need to take anti-allergic drugs, and during pregnancy it is forbidden. Medications can harm future child!

Combination of allergy and pregnancy, of course, is not the best thing that happens in life. However, there is good news. Canadian Family Pharmacy scientists have proved that during pregnancy, representatives of the fair sex observe increased production of hormone cortisol, which has anti-allergic activity. So, in pregnant women allergies are less common, and if they appear, it proceeds in a softer form. Even such serious diseases as bronchial asthma and hay fever during pregnancy can not manifest themselves at all. After delivery, level of cortisol in blood gradually returns to normal, and allergy manifestations are renewed. If allergy completely disappeared during the first pregnancy, most likely the same will happen during subsequent ones.

How does Pregnancy Affect Allergies?

There are three types of effect of pregnancy on allergy:

  • pregnancy does not affect the course of allergy;
  • on the background of pregnancy, there is improvement in the course of allergic diseases;
  • on the background of pregnancy there is exacerbation of allergic diseases.

allergy at pregnancy

According to Canadian Family Pharmacy statistics, runny nose and nasal congestion are observed in almost every second pregnant woman, starting from 12th week from the moment of conception.

If there is a direct link between blooming (appearance of a cat in the house, change in diet) and problem with the nose — then a woman has exacerbation of allergic rhinitis.

Another allergic disease — bronchial asthma — occurs in 2% of pregnant women (Learn about asthma during pregnancy — However, if before asthma was not present, then during pregnancy, it is unlikely to appear. If asthma already existed, then its exacerbations should be awaited from 24 to 36 weeks of pregnancy. During the last 4 weeks before giving birth, almost all women with asthma get better. Today, bronchial asthma is not considered a contraindication for pregnancy. The main thing is control by doctors. On the other hand, there are such manifestations of allergy (for example, a special kind of «urticaria»), which are usually found during the first pregnancy.


At pregnancy it is necessary to take medicines with great caution, including antiallergic preparations. It is necessary to consult constantly an allergist and take medication only if possible risk of influencing the fetus does not exceed benefits.

None of antiallergic drugs guarantee complete safety for unborn child. Tavegil is especially suspicious. When in the course of scientific experiment they were fed to pregnant rats, newborn rats developed heart defects and paw defects. And although people do not write about ugliness after receiving Tavegil in medical journals, it’s still not worth the risk. In this respect, diazolin is considered relatively safe: it has been used for a long time, no obvious negative effects on fetus have been observed. However, even diazolin is desirable to take only in the most extreme case, not for long and in small doses.


If the future mother suffers from allergic diseases, it is very likely (but not necessary) that they will be present in the child. However, problem of allergy in the baby may appear at a woman who has never had anything like that. It is established that child’s immune system is colliding with allergens in the womb of the mother, and at the same time hypersensitivity is formed to them. After birth, the child contacts with the allergen, a substance to which its immune system reacts inadequately, and as a result allergic processes begin.

What to Do?

It is desirable to consult allergist even before pregnancy. The doctor will appoint you a comprehensive allergological and immunological examination, will give direction for carrying out allergological tests. Having found out which substances cause such a reaction of the body, you can protect yourself from them during pregnancy.


One of the main ways to prevent allergies in the mother and the baby is hypoallergenic diet. All pregnant women are recommended to observe it, starting from seventh month. If the future mother suffers from allergy, then she must keep to this diet from the first days of pregnancy. Read interesting facts about diets —

The main principle of this diet is elimination of allergenic foods from the diet. They include: milk, eggs, nuts, honey, seafood (crabs, shrimps, crayfish), fish, red and black caviar, raspberries, strawberries, tomatoes, chocolate, cheese, citrus, chicken, canned foods, sweet, spicy, salted, canned food as well as juices.

You can eat: porridge, lean meat and poultry in boiled form (veal, turkey, chicken), vegetables and fruits of soft color (potatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini, green and yellow apples, pears, etc.).

Allergy and Pregnancy

Also, try to avoid other allergens:

  • smoking (active and passive) of a pregnant and lactating woman is unacceptable. There is evidence that smoking during pregnancy affects development of fetal lungs, leading to intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus. Children of smoking of mothers have increaseв possibility of atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, pneumonia, sudden infant death syndrome.
  • often ventilate the apartment, do wet cleaning daily, at least once a week vacuum the carpets and furniture, knock out and dry pillows. You can generally get rid of such «dust collectors» as carpets, curtains;
  • try to limit contact with cats and dogs (during pregnancy), and also get rid of cockroaches;
  • breast milk is the most suitable product for feeding children during the first months of life. Early — up to 4 months — termination of breastfeeding increases frequency of allergic reactions in the child by several times, because with mother’s milk the body receives substances neutralizing allergens.
Gestational Diabetes. Diet and Treatment at Gestational Diabetes — June 17, 2017

Gestational Diabetes. Diet and Treatment at Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a diabetes that a woman acquires during pregnancy. Also, examination can reveal not yet «complete» diabetes, but impaired glucose tolerance, i.e. prediabetes. As a rule, pregnant women have increased blood sugar after eating, but on an empty stomach it remains normal.

In most cases, gestational diabetes is detected in the second half of pregnancy and occurs shortly after birth. Or a woman can become pregnant, already being a diabetic. In any case, the goal of treatment is the same — to keep blood sugar close to normal, in order to give birth to a healthy child.

How to Determine Risk for a Woman of Developing Gestational Diabetes

gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes complicates about 2.0 — 3.5% of all pregnancies. Even at the stage of family planning, a woman can assess her risk of gestational diabetes. Its risk factors are:

  • overweight or obesity (calculate your body mass index);
  • woman’s body weight was significantly increased after 18 years;
  • age over 30 years;
  • relatives suffering from diabetes;
  • during previous pregnancy, gestational diabetes was present, sugar in the urine was detected, or a fine baby was born;
  • polycystic ovary syndrome.

Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes

All women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation undergo oral glucose tolerance test. And in the process of this test, level of glucose in blood plasma is measured not only on an empty stomach and after 2 hours, but additionally 1 hour after the «load». In this way, they check for gestational diabetes and, if necessary, give recommendations for treatment.

Here it will be useful to remind that in pregnant women plasma sugar level on an empty stomach usually remains normal. Therefore, analysis for sugar on an empty stomach is not sufficiently informative. In addition, if a woman has a high risk of developing gestational diabetes, then oral glucose tolerance test should be done at the planning stage of pregnancy.

How High is the Risk for the Fetus?

The more the concentration of glucose in blood of a pregnant woman exceeds the norm, the higher the risk of macrosomia is. This is the name of excessive fetal growth and excess body weight, which it can gain in the third trimester of pregnancy. At the same time, size of its head and brain remain within normal limits, but large shoulder girdle will cause difficulties in passing through the birth canal.

Macrosomia can lead to premature resolution of pregnancy, as well as injury to the child or mother during childbirth. If ultrasound shows macrosomia, then doctors often decide to cause premature births to ease their course and avoid birth trauma. The danger of such tactics is that even a large fetus may not be developed enough.

Nevertheless, according to the American Diabetes Association in 2007, overall mortality rate of fetuses and newborns is very low, and depends little on the level of glucose in mother’s blood. However, a pregnant woman should, as closely as possible, maintain her blood sugar close to normal values.

Treatment of Gestational Diabetes

If a pregnant woman is diagnosed with gestational diabetes, then she is prescribed a diet, moderate physical activity and is recommended to measure her blood sugar 5 — 6 times a day.

If diet and exercise is not enough to bring sugar to normal, pregnant woman is prescribed injections of insulin. What kind of insulin regimen is prescribed, is decided by a qualified doctor, not by the patient alone.

Diet at Gestational Diabetes

Proper diet for gestational diabetes is as follows:

  • eat 5 — 6 times a day, 3 main meals and 2 — 3 snacks;
  • completely discard use of carbohydrates, which are quickly absorbed (sweets, flour, potatoes);
  • carefully measure sugar in blood with glucometer painlessly 1 hour after each meal;
  • there should be 40 — 45% carbohydrates, up to 30% of healthy fats and 25 — 60% of proteins in the diet;
  • caloric intake is calculated by the formula: 30 — 35 kcal per 1 kg of your ideal body weight.

proper diet for diabetes

If your weight before pregnancy on a parameter of body mass index corresponded to norm, optimal weight gain during pregnancy will be 11 — 16 kg. If a pregnant woman already had excess weight or obesity, then she is recommended to gain not more than 7 — 8 kg.

Recommendations for a Woman after Childbirth

If you had gestational diabetes during pregnancy and then it disappeared after childbirth, do not be too relaxed. Because risk that you will eventually have type 2 diabetes is very high. Gestational diabetes is a sign that your body’s tissues have insulin resistance, that is poor sensitivity to insulin.

It turns out that in normal life your pancreas is already working on the edge of its capabilities. During pregnancy, load on it has increased. Therefore, it stopped coping with production of proper amount of insulin, and blood glucose level rose beyond upper limit of the norm.

With age, insulin resistance of tissues increases, and ability of pancreas to produce insulin decreases. This can lead to diabetes and its severe vascular complications. For women who have suffered gestational diabetes during pregnancy, risk of this development is elevated. So, you need to engage in prevention of diabetes.

After childbirth, it is recommended to re-pass test for diabetes after 6 — 12 weeks. If everything turns out OK, then check every 3 years. It is best to take a blood test for glycated hemoglobin.

The best way to prevent diabetes is to switch to food with restriction of carbohydrates. This means focusing on your diet on protein foods and natural healthy fats, instead of foods rich in carbohydrates, which increase risk of diabetes and spoil your figure. Low-carbohydrate diet is contraindicated to women during pregnancy, but it is excellent after the period of breastfeeding. Read about proper diet here —

Physical exercises are also useful for prevention of type 2 diabetes. Find the kind of physical activity that will give you pleasure, and do it. For example, you might like swimming, jogging or aerobics. These kinds of physical exercises cause state of pleasant euphoria because of tides of «hormones of happiness».

Viagra for Women: True or False — June 14, 2017

Viagra for Women: True or False

Often women pay attention to drugs that do not have a specific effect on their body. This is not even due to health problems, but rather because of the usual curiosity, the desire to gain new sensations and a stronger effect from intimacy. Is in this case a desirable positive result and is it safe to take such preparation as man’s Viagra for women?

Viagra History

Everything happened in 20th century. In Britain, the company Pfizer, conducted a successful clinical trial of new drug creation. It was called Sildenafil Citrate. The drug was originally developed for cardiovascular system diseases treatment.

The drug developers believed that the active ingredient contributes to sufficiently strong inflow of blood precisely to cardiac muscle. In addition, a few minutes later, it must significantly reduce blood pressure to normal values, even in hypertensive patients with complicated disease’s form.

However, in practice it did not happen. The product was tested both on women and on men. According to the test results, an incredible effect was established on the male sex in the form of increase in erection. But Sildenafil citrate worked only on the physiological level, without causing additional stimulation and expressed sexual desire.

It means that it is safe at the mental level. That is, the drug could be safely taken to all men without fear of pathological attraction to the weaker sex. At the same time, Viagra effect on girls was not disclosed for some reason. You may read more about male and female sexual dysfunction on Canadian Family Pharmacy — about Viagra

Viagra Action on Females

Indeed, it is known that the drug is very effective for men, but is it able to exert the necessary influence on girls and women?

Before answering this question it is worthwhile to understand how the remedy affects the male body. The penis consists of a left and right cavernous body. When there is sexual excitement, they receive a large amount of blood. It helps to have a steady and long lasting erection.

In women, blood flow to the genital organs occurs, but this excitement does not practically work either. It can only change general condition in the form of an increase in blood pressure and then only temporarily.

The positive effect of Viagra intended for men, women can get only in some cases:

  • diabetes mellitus presence;
  • menopause;
  • when transferring operation of uterus removal;
  • in case of contraindications to hormone replacement therapy.

When using Canadian Family Pharmacy Viagra by women blood flow to small pelvis organs increases, which leads to the greatest secretion. This moment can be used by women with abnormal vaginal dryness. This action will help eliminate discomfort during intimacy, increase the pleasure of sexual intercourse and will contribute to rapid natural orgasm achievement.

Today, a special drug for women has been developed known as Women’s Viagra. It was created by the same company «Pfizer» and before the mass sale was clinically and laboratory tested.

Special Viagra for Women

In the process of drug manufacturing, it was added a substance that helps women to be liberated during intercourse. It removes psychological hindrance, helping to achieve the greatest satisfaction from proximity with partner.

For clinical studies conduct, two experimental groups were created. One of them received a new drug for women, and another — usual placebo. The result did not make wait for long. The first group of the fair sex had regular orgasms, sex became more regular and overall psychological status was improved.

The action of Pink Female Viagra is as follows:

  • reduction of pain during menstruation;
  • promotion of increase in testosterone hormone in blood;
  • increase in sensitivity of nerve receptors endings;
  • promotion full blood circulation in the genital area;
  • increases duration of sensations and help to increase brightness from sexual contact with a partner.

Viagra for Women Features

Knowing drug effect is one thing, but how to use it correctly is another. First of all, you need to consult a specialist. Only a doctor is able to determine whether the remedy is suitable, and most importantly, whether side effects can occur as complications. Particular attention is paid to internal organs health, in particular heart performance.

If there are no special indications for taking Viagra, then the average dose is 50 mg, this is half a tablet a day before meals. According to indications and in absence of side effects, the dose may be increased to 100 mg. In hepatic and renal insufficiency presence, drug amount should not exceed 25 mg per day.

This amount is also recommended for people over 65 with severe hypertension (2-3 degrees). The necessary effect reaches its heights 2 hours after tablet consumption. Within 5-6 hours Viagra components are completely excreted naturally. Taking large drug doses is not permissible. It can have a negative effect on general body condition.

Symptoms of Viagra for women in case of overdose are the following:

  • feeling of nausea;
  • headache;
  • shortness of breath and nasal congestion;
  • sharp skin of the face reddening.

Contraindications and Side Effects

The instructions clearly state that reception is not allowed to everyone and it must be taken into account when choosing generic medications. Certainly, women’s Viagra will help those who have real problems in intimate sphere. It is important to know that its uniqueness lies in the fact that changes in body are not formed at physiological level.

There are absolute contraindications to Female Viagra application.

That is, even with a preventive goal, this medication cannot be applied in the following cases:

  • benign and malignant tumors;
  • neurasthenia and psychosis of various etiologies;
  • age less than 18 years;
  • heart attacks and strokes especially early after transferred condition;
  • use of nitrates with a therapeutic purpose;
  • pregnancy and lactation;
  • individual intolerance to remedy;
  • professional activities related to working with complex mechanisms;
  • driving a car and another type of transport earlier 6 hours after taking the pill.

Side-effect is extremely rare. More often a good drug tolerance is observed. An incorrect reaction occurs in about 0.2-0.4% of women. But in any case, uncontrolled reception is not permissible. In addition to the above-listed phenomena, there may be nasal bleeding, a color perception violation, fainting.

If it is necessary to solve the sexual problems of a woman quickly and effectively, then Viagra for females is an ideal remedy. It is important to consider all of the doctor’s recommendations and follow the instructions provided.

Arterial Hypertension: Causes, Symptoms, Stages — June 10, 2017

Arterial Hypertension: Causes, Symptoms, Stages

To date, arterial hypertension is the most common disease of cardiovascular system. This disease is characterized by high blood pressure, which often exceeds 140/90. Constantly increased blood pressure is observed in all people who often have vasospasm.

According to Canadian Family Pharmacy experts in the field of vascular diseases, arterial hypertension most often appears due to circulatory disorders. Cardiac insufficiency also refers to the list of causes that provoke development of hypertension, which for such category of patients serves as harbinger of deadly diseases: blood stroke, heart attack, etc.

Arterial hypertension has negative effect on vessels of the patient, which in short time are narrowed and damaged. When blood flow is too strong, walls of vessels can not stand and burst, resulting in hemorrhage in patients. Hemorrhagic infarction occurs directly in the organ in which vessels have lost their elasticity and are prone to brittleness.

What is Hypertension?

Hypertension is a disease which main symptom is high blood pressure, which causes neuromuscular disorders of vascular tone. Most often, this disease occurs in people who are over 40, but recently hypertension has become significantly younger and is diagnosed in people of different ages. Hypertension often affects both men and women. This disease is one of the main causes of death in people with diseases of cardiovascular system.

For many decades, scientists from around the world have been studying arterial hypertension. According to research data, results of which are published in specialized mass media, hypertension is the main cause of disability on our planet. Canadian family Pharmacy statistics indicate that arterial hypertension very often becomes the cause of death of patients who too late came for help to a medical institution.

Symptoms of Hypertension

The main symptom of hypertension is headache, this is due to narrowing and spasm of cerebral vessels. Also frequent symptoms of hypertension — noise in the ears, «flies» and veil before your eyes, general weakness, sleep disturbances, dizziness, feeling of heaviness in the head, palpitations. These symptoms are observed at an early stage of hypertension and are of neurotic in nature. At a later stage of hypertension, cardiac insufficiency may occur due to permanent overfatigue of heart muscle due to high blood pressure.


Due to progression of painful process, reduction of visual acuity, damage cerebral vessels from high blood pressure is possible, and this can lead to paralysis, decrease in sensitivity of extremities, which occurs because of vasospasm, hemorrhage or thrombosis.

In addition, many hypertensive patients have the following symptoms:

  • nasal hemorrhages;
  • vomiting;
  • loss of sleep;
  • memory impairment;
  • redness of facial skin at any physical effort;
  • strong pressure on the eyes (it is painful to look around, so patients prefer to rest and wait for retreat of the attack in silence with their eyes closed);
  • rapid heart rate;
  • swelling;
  • fast fatigue, etc.

Causes of Hypertension and Risk Factors

The cause of hypertension is frequent, prolonged neuropsychiatric stresses, prolonged stressful situations. Often prerequisite for the onset of hypertension is work, in performance of which a person is in constant emotional stress. There is also a high probability of developing hypertension in people who have suffered concussion. Hereditary predisposition can also be one of the reasons for occurrence of hypertension: if someone in the family suffered from such a disease, probability of developing hypertension increases by several times.

One of the main causes of hypertension can be hypodynamia. With age, when older people begin to acquire atherosclerosis and age-related changes in blood vessels, development of hypertension can aggravate the problem by forcing atherosclerosis to progress. This is a rather dangerous phenomenon, since with strong spasm of blood vessels, blood access to brain, heart and kidneys becomes critically small. If there are plaques on the walls of blood vessels, then at strong spasm of blood vessels, blood can stop coming to vital organs and circulating through arteries. In this case, myocardial infarction or blood stroke occurs.

In women, the cause of hypertension may be period of hormonal changes in the body with menopause. Salt, and to be more precise, sodium, contained in it, as well as smoking, alcohol abuse and excess weight, also contribute to increasing load on cardiovascular system.

Causes of hypertension can include the following factors:

  • excess weight due to metabolic disorders, endocrine diseases, sedentary lifestyle, etc. (even minor deviations from the norm can cause problems with heart and blood vessels, on the background which arterial hypertension will develop);
  • regular emotional stress, stressful situations, depression, tragedy, etc .;
  • strong nervous tension caused by problems at work, in business (read how to treat nervous disorders —;
  • traumas of brain (accidents, falls, bruises, hypothermia);
  • chronic diseases that have negative impact on cardiovascular system (diabetes, gout, rheumatoid arthritis);
  • hereditary predisposition (according to statistics, children whose parents suffered from arterial hypertension often inherit these problems and at young age begin to observe first symptoms of high blood pressure);
  • viral and infectious diseases, consequences of which can manifest themselves as hypertensive disease (meningitis, frontalitis, sinusitis, etc.);
  • age-related changes in blood vessels;
  • elevated blood cholesterol level, in which vascular walls form plaques that interfere with normal blood circulation (often spasms occur in these vessels which interferes with blood flow to vital organs and can trigger blood stroke or heart attack);
  • climacteric condition in women who have overcome the 40-year-old boundary (during the time of significant hormonal changes in the body, hidden diseases often begin to progress, on the background of which arterial hypertension may develop);
  • bad habits (smoking, drinking alcohol in large quantities, excessive consumption of coffee);
  • daily consumption of salt in large quantities;
  • sharp increase in adrenaline in blood;
  • long time spent at the computer;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • rare walks in fresh air, etc.

What are Hypertensive Crises?

Hypertensive crisis is the peak manifestation of hypertension. When the blood pressure rises sharply, all of the above symptoms are observed, but nausea, vomiting, sweating and darkening in the eyes are added to them. Such crises can last from a few minutes to several hours. Patients complain of heart palpitations, they are nervous and frightened. In this condition, red spots can appear on cheeks, sometimes during attack there may be profuse urination or loose stool. Hypertensive crises most often appear after strong emotional stress in women during menopause, in the afternoon or at night.

There is another type of hypertensive crisis, which has a more severe course, its development is gradual, and it is quite long in duration — it can torment a person for four to five hours or even several days. Such crisis most often occurs in later stages of development of hypertensive disease, and, as a rule, it occurs on the background of chronically high blood pressure. A severe crisis is often accompanied by cerebral symptoms — for example, speech can be disturbed, failure in sensitivity of limbs. Sometimes such crisis is accompanied by strong heartache.


Diagnosis of Hypertension

To make an accurate diagnosis of a patient who has symptoms of arterial hypertension, specialist should conduct a complex of diagnostic measures, including both laboratory and physical examination. The purpose of diagnosis is to determine the stage and extent of hypertension. Thanks to these data, attending physician will be able to choose the most effective therapy.

Due to the fact that arterial hypertension is often asymptomatic at the first stage of its development, most patients get to medical institution too late. In such cases, patients should be patient, since hypertension is very difficult to treat and can accompany a person for the rest of his life. In order not to lose precious time and get timely medical help, you need to closely monitor your health and immediately respond to any alarming signals from the body.

At home, each person must regularly measure blood pressure by means of blood pressure monitor. Optimal indicators are equal to 120/80, for elderly people allowable value is 130/90. Increase in systolic pressure by 5 — 10 units may be caused by changes in climatic conditions, too much physical and mental stress. Too large difference between «top» and «bottom» pressure is also a cause for concern — it should normally not exceed 50 units. If a person often observes changes in blood pressure, he needs to urgently go to the nearest medical institution and get a detailed consultation of a narrow-profile specialist.

Stages of Hypertension

Modern medicine defines 3 stages of arterial hypertension:

  • the 1st stage is arterial pressure of 140-159/90-99 mm Hg. Pressure can return from time to time to normal values, after which it can rise again;
  • the 2nd stage is arterial pressure, which ranges between 160-179/100-109 mm Hg. Pressure often rises and rarely returns to normal;
  • the 3rd stage is when pressure rises to 180 and above/110 mm Hg. Pressure almost constantly keeps high, and its decrease can be a sign of malfunction in heart.

1 Stage of Hypertension

At the first stage of arterial hypertension, patient may not feel strong changes in his body. Very often pressure, which for certain reasons rises to 140/90 or 160/100, returns to usual framework (120/80).

To identify hypertension in the first stage is possible only if patient will independently monitor his blood pressure. Drawn up schedule will allow specialist to make certain conclusions and accurate diagnosis.

2 Stage of Hypertension

At the second stage, arterial hypertension is often accompanied by headaches, nausea, lethargy, general weakness, etc.

In patients, blood pressure rises and holds for a long time in the range from 160/100 to 180/110. Independently pressure rarely returns to normal, so patients need medications.

3 Stage of Hypertension

The third stage of arterial hypertension is considered to be the most dangerous, since with it in most patients pressure can reach 180/110 and above. Unexpected decrease in blood pressure at the third stage of hypertension by specialists can be regarded as a sign of malfunction in heart and serve as an occasion for consultation with cardiologist. In patients, symptomatic hypertension begins to manifest itself vividly, which forces people to seek help from medical institutions.

This category of patients needs long-term treatment (often in hospital), which involves admission of special medications and physiotherapy procedures.

In arterial hypertension, hypertensive crises can occur in many patients (especially in stages 2 and 3), during which pressure rises rapidly. At such attacks, patients may experience the following symptoms:

  • nausea and vomiting;
  • heart pain;
  • severe headaches;
  • dizziness;
  • increased sweating, etc.

Hypertensive crisis can end in a few minutes, and can drag on for several hours. Such patients need emergency medical care.

How to Treat Hypertension?

In treatment of arterial hypertension, a specialist individually selects for each patient a course of drug therapy.


In most cases, the following Canadian Family Pharmacy medicines are prescribed for hypertension:

  1. thiazide diuretics — drugs that reduce level of fluid in the body, and, accordingly, blood pressure indicators;
  2. sartans (angiotensin II receptor blockers) — modern drugs that have been used since the 90s, allow reducing pressure 24 hours after a single dose in the morning or evening;
  3. calcium antagonists — appointed in case if there are violations of cardiac activity, arrhythmia, cardiac angina or severe cerebral atherosclerosis.
  4. angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors — able to expand cavity of blood vessels and arteries (these drugs prevent development of vasospasms and facilitate work of heart);
  5. beta-adrenoblockers — normalize heart rhythm (at increased blood pressure, heart starts to work in accelerated rhythm);
  6. blockers of alpha-adrenergic receptors, which are capable of very carefully expanding peripheral vessels.

During treatment, patients should lead a quiet lifestyle, in which there are no stresses or emotional overloads. Patients need more time to spend in the fresh air, it is best to make long walks in the woods, in the park, by the water. It is necessary to follow the diet, as proper nutrition is the key to successful treatment of arterial hypertension. Read more about how to keep a healthy lifestyle here —

What You Need to Know about Allergy. Canadian Family Pharmacy Guideline — June 7, 2017

What You Need to Know about Allergy. Canadian Family Pharmacy Guideline

Allergy is a disease characterized by a complex of symptoms (edema, itching, skin rashes, nasal discharge, sneezing, bronchospasm and many others), the following causes of allergies may be the basis of these complaints:

  1. excessive immune system sensitivity (true allergy);
  2. wrong body reaction (pseudoallergy).

Such allergy symptoms can be a reaction on a variety of substances (pollen, house dust, animal hair, food, medicine, household items, etc.), which normally do not cause any reaction and are safe for most people. Read also about 10 Widespread types of allergies on Canadian Family Pharmacy

Why is Allergy so Important?

Today, allergy is one of the most common diseases, and one should not underestimate this problem importance and danger of allergies. It is much more effective to conduct early prevention and treatment of allergies before the period of exacerbation.

What You Need to Know About Allergy. Canadian Family Pharmacy Cuideline

Allergies symptoms can be as practically invisible (masking for other diseases, so you do not have to guess about its presence), and dangerous and life-threatening (for example, larynx edema, bronchi with difficulty breathing or anaphylactic shock, which develops in 10-15 minutes if you breath a substance to what you have an allergy).

It should be noted that people with allergic reactions are often allergic to several different substances. In this case, allergic reaction strength in each specific case can be completely different and often unexpected.

What is Allergy Essence?

The leading role in allergies emergence belongs to the immune system. It is this natural body guardian, directed to protect against dangerous and alien elements, which causes failure. In this case, the most innocuous and ordinary substances are regarded by immune system as hostile to body. Immunity starts to defend, reacting violently, «exceeds the limits of acceptable self-defense», while damaging their own tissues. It is this aggressive immune system response to environmental factors that is called allergy (hypersensitivity).

Allergies Manifestations and Symptoms

The prevalence of allergy manifestations can be:

  1. Local, affecting individual areas and organs of the body, not extending to other parts of the body:
    • skin rash;
    • watery eyes;
    • nasal congestion.
  2. Common, when allergic inflammatory process can be involved large areas, organs or systems of the body:
    • increase in body temperature;
    • rash all over the body;
    • itching all over the body;
    • Quincke’s edema (edema of face or entire body);
    • lowering of arterial pressure, anaphylactic shock.

Manifestations of Local Reaction in case of Allergy

Often the allergic reaction first develops in the place where the allergen hits:

When penetrating into nose, throat, bronchi and lungs the following symptoms develop:

  • sneezing, perspiration, runny nose;
  • edema of the mucous respiratory tract, bronchospasm, wheezing, shortness of breath.

If the epidermis of animals falls, the spores of mold fungus penetrates into oral mucosa and digestive system the following complaints can be:

  • redness, burning, itching, mucosa swelling;
  • increase in lips, tongue, oral mucosa size;
  • vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, etc.

This happens when taking food, various liquids, medicines.

In contact with skin surface, the following symptoms of allergy may occur:

  • redness, burning, itching, swelling of the skin (swelling and enlargement in size);
  • peeling, various rashes, soreness.

Such manifestations can cause substances in cosmetics, cleaning and detergents (household chemicals), pollen of plants, food.

When the allergen penetrates subcutaneously, the following allergy symptoms develop:

  • redness, edema;
  • soreness, at the place of bite by insects.

With the introduction of vaccines and drugs, an acute allergic reaction can develop, right up to anaphylactic shock — a dangerous, life-threatening condition.

Allergy is Reaction of the Whole Organism

In most cases, regardless of allergen location, not only the local allergic reaction occurs, but also the general, the whole body reacts. (For example, if an allergic person eats chocolate or another product containing an allergen, then it will not only have itching in mouth, but also rash, redness, edema, fever all over the body).

How to Distinguish between True Allergy and Pseudoallergia?

The external manifestations and symptoms of true allergy and pseudoallergy are often the same, and the causes that trigger them are different. The fact is that the external symptoms of an allergy are the result of bioactive substances action (mainly histamine, but also other mediators of inflammation such as serotonin, cytokines, leukotrienes, prostaglandins) that, in case of allergy, are hundreds of times higher than normal.

With true allergy, the antibody, reacting with allergen (a substance regarded by the body as a dangerous and causing an allergic reaction) causes mast cells release by bioactive substances and then the entire cascade of them.